The mention and vocalisation of the takbīrāt begin from the time the sun sets on the night preceding the first day of Dhul-Hijjah due to the saying of Allah (E):
لِّيَشْهَدُوا مَنَافِعَ لَهُمْ وَيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْلُومَاتٍ
“That they may witness benefits for themselves and mention the name of Allah on known days.” (Al-Hajj: 28)
And these are the ten days of Dhul-Hijjah.
And as for the saying of Allah (D):
وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ
“And remember Allah during [specific] numbered days.” (Al-Baqarah: 203)
This verse refers to the days of Tashrīq (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah); and due to the saying of the Prophet (H):
أيام التشريق أيام أكل وشرب وذكر الله عز وجل
“The days of Tashrīq are days of eating and drinking and the dhikr of Allāh (D).” Reported by Muslim in his Saheeh.
Bukhārī (V) stated in his Saheeh without a connected chain of narration (declared saheeh by Al-Albānī in Irwā al-Ghalīl no. 651) from Ibn ‘Umar and Abu Abu Hurayrah (L):
أنهما كانا يخرجان إلى السوق أيام العشر فيكبران ويكبر
“They would both go out to the market place during the ten days making the takbīr and the people would follow them in making the takbīr.”
The takbīr is of two types:
1. A general takbīr: meaning that which is not restricted to a particular time; and this refers to all of the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah right through to the last of the days of tashrīq.
2. A specific takbīr: meaning the takbīr that is recited after the daily prayers, beginning from Fajr prayer on the day of ‘Arafah (9th Dhul-Hijjah) until ‘Asr prayer in the last day of the days of tashrīq (i.e. the 13th Dhul-Hijjah).
Men and women:
It is legislated for the men to raise their voices; as for the woman then she raises her voice to the extent that she can hear herself and those surrounding her – such that it is a low voice contrary to the men.
The manner of the Dhikr:
الله أكبر الله أكبر لا إله إلا الله
Allahu akbar; Allahu akbar; lā ilāha illallāh
الله أكبر الله أكبر ولله الحمد
Allahu akbar; Allahu akbar; walillāhil-hamd
Or one may increase the takbīr (الله أكبر) in the first line to three takbīrs.
Note on reciting in chorus (in unison):
Shaikh ‘Abdul-‘Azīz Ibn Bāz (V) stated: “As for the recital of the takbīr in unison then it is not religiously legislated; it is an innovation (بدعة); wherein they recited in a united voice – that is an innovation, not legislated [in the religion].”
Written by: [Shaikh] Khālid Ibn Dahwī adh-Dhafīrī.