“To Seek Refuge With Other Than Allaah Is From Shirk”, Shaikh Ahmad an-Najmee’s Kitaab at-Tawheed, Chapter 12

“Ash-Sharh al-Moojaz al-Mumahhad li Tawheed al-Khaaliq al-Mumajjad alladhi allafahu Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad”
(The Concise, Simple and Straight-forward Explanation of the Tawheed of the Exalted Creator – which was Authored by the Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab)

Sharh-Moojaz-An-Najmee

This is an explanation of Kitaab at-Tawheed of Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab (d. 1206H, rahimahullaah) by ash-Shaikh al-Allaamah Ahmad b. Yahyaa an-Najmee (rahimahullaah).

So Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

Chapter 12: To Seek Refuge With Other Than Allaah Is From Shirk

The saying of Allaah, the Most High,

وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ رِجَالٌ مِّنَ الْإِنسِ يَعُوذُونَ بِرِجَالٍ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَزَادُوهُمْ رَهَقًا [٧٢:٦]

“And verily there were men amongst the humans who sought refuge with some men amongst the Jinn, but the Jinn only increased them in sin and disbelief.” [al-Jinn: 6]

It is narrated that Khawlah bint Hakeem (radiyallaahu `anhaa) said: I heard Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu alaihi wassallam) say:

“Whoever stops [to rest whilst upon a journey] at a place and says:

أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّاتِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

 I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allaah from the evil of what He has created, then not a thing will harm him until he depart from that place.” Reported by Muslim.

[Reported by Muslim (no. 2708) with a slightly different wording. Khawlah bint Hakeem was called Umm Shuraik. She was a well-known Companion.]

Important issues in the chapter:

1. The explanation of the verse in Sooratul-Jinn.

2. That seeking refuge in Jinn is from Shirk.

3. The proof of that being extracted from the hadeeth because of the fact that the Scholars use that to prove that the Words of Allaah are not created. They say: This is due to the fact that seeking refuge with the creation is Shirk.

4. The excellence of this supplication despite its brevity.

5. The fact that something of worldly benefit is obtained by seeking refuge in other than Allaah, such as prevention of an evil or bringing about a benefit does not prove that it is not Shirk.

Explanation:

His saying, “Chapter: To seek refuge with other than Allaah is from Shirk”, this refers to Major Shirk that exits one from Islaam.

The meaning of al-Isti`aadhah here is to take refuge (iltijaa’) with other than Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. So a person hopes to be protected from harm by whatever he is seeking refuge in. So it is said: “I seek refuge with such-and-such from [the harm of] such-and-such.” It is not permitted for a person to seek refuge with other than Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic. And Allaah has stated in Sooratul-Jinn:

وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ رِجَالٌ مِّنَ الْإِنسِ يَعُوذُونَ بِرِجَالٍ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَزَادُوهُمْ رَهَقًا [٧٢:٦]

And there were men from mankind who sought refuge in men from the jinn, so they [only] increased them in burden [of sin and disbelief].

Meaning that they seek security and protection by requesting from them to repel the evil of their own species (i.e. the Jinn).

There occurs in a report that some of the Arabs when one of them would embark upon a journey, and then settle in a place for the night, he would say: “I seek refuge with the master of this valley from the evil of its foolish ones.” [1]

([1] This narration has been reported by Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree in his Tafseer 29/68-69. As-Suyootee in ad-Durr al-Manthoor, 6/432, ascribed to `Abd bin Humaid and Ibn Mundhir. Also Ibn Katheer in his Tafseer from as-Suddee regarding this verse that he said: “A man would go out on a journey with his family and he would come to a place and disembark. So he would say: “I seek refuge with the master of this valley from the Jinn that cause harm upon me,or my wealth, or my children or my beasts.” Qataadah said: “So when he sought refuge with them (i.e. the Jinn) instead of with Allaah then the Jinn overtake them with harm at that stage.”)

And he would intend by that refuge from the Jinn, so Allaah revealed:

وَأَنَّهُ كَانَ رِجَالٌ مِّنَ الْإِنسِ يَعُوذُونَ بِرِجَالٍ مِّنَ الْجِنِّ فَزَادُوهُمْ رَهَقًا [٧٢:٦]

And there were men from mankind who sought refuge in men from the jinn, so they [only] increased them in burden [of sin and disbelief].

Meaning that it only increased them in fear and fright. They would gain control and lordship over them and transgress against them. Then Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, revealed this verse to His Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam), so he stated that. So the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said:

“Whoever settles at a place and says:

أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّاتِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allaah from the evil of what He has created, then not a thing will harm him until he depart from that place.”

The narrator is Khawlah bint Hakeem Ibn ‘Umayyah as-Salmiyyah, and she was called Umm Shuraik, she was called Khuwailah. She was a well-known Companion. It is said that she offered herself in marriage to the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam), and that was before her marriage to `Uthmaan Ibn Madh`oon. [See at-Taqreeb, no. 8575]

The Prophet’s saying: “Whoever stops at a place..” So this is a mention of protection or security from the transgressions of the devils, and this is to say: ‘A`oodhubi kalimaatillaahit-Taammaat (I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allaah). The term Kalimaat is the plural of kalimah (word).

His saying at-Taammaat (perfect) is a description that befits and is suited to the Words of Allaah. Its intent is the Quranic Words, or even more general than that, i.e. the Words of Allaah which include the Qur’aan and other than it.

And similar to that has been reported in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree from Abu Hurairah (radiyallaahu `anhu) who said:

Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) entrusted me with looking after the Zakaat of Ramadaan. Whilst I was doing so, someone came along  and started helping himself to the food. So I took hold of him, and said: “By Allaah! I will take you to Allaah’s Messenger.” He responded: “I am in need, and I have a family. Indeed I am in desperate need.” So I let him go. When it was morning, the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said to me: “O Abu Hurairah, what did your prisoner do last night?” I said: “O Messenger of Allaah, he complained about his desperate need and family. So I showed him pity and left him on his way.” The Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said: “He has lied to you and he will be back.” So I knew he would be back due to the saying of the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam): “He will be back.” So laid in wait for him and he turned up and started taking the food, so I took hold of him and said: “Indeed I will take you to Allaah’s Messenger!” He responded: “Let me go for indeed I am in need and I have family relying upon me. I will not return.” So I took pity on him and let him go. In the morning the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said to me:  “O Abu Hurairah, what did your prisoner do last night?” I said: “O Messenger of Allaah, he complained about his desperate need and family. So I showed him pity and left him on his way.” The Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said: “He has lied to you and he will be back.” So I laid in wait for him the third night. He came and starting taking the food, so I took hold of him and said: “Indeed I will take you to Allaah’s Messenger! This the third and last time. You promised you would not return but you came back.” He said: “Let me go and I will teach you some words. Words that Allaah will benefit you with.” I said: “What are they?” He said: “When you retire to your bed, recite the Aayatul-Kursee:

اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ۚ[٢:٢٥٥]

“Allah – there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of all existence..” [1] (until the end of the verse)

For indeed there will be protection from Allaah that will not leave you and the Shaytaan will not approach you until the morning.” So I let him go on his way. In the morning Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said to me: “What did your prisoner do last night?” I said: “O Messenger of Allaah, he promised that he would teach me some words that Allaah will benefit me with, so I let him go.” So he said: “What are they?” I replied, “He said to me: “When you retire to your bed, recite the Aayatul-Kursee:

اللَّهُلَاإِلَٰهَإِلَّاهُوَالْحَيُّالْقَيُّومُ ۚ …[٢:٢٥٥]

“Allah – there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of [all] existence..” (until the end of the verse)

For indeed there will be a protector from Allaah that will not leave you and the Shaytaan will not approach you until the morning.” [And the Companions were the most ardent of people to do good]. So the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said: “Indeed he has told you the truth though he is a liar. Do you know who has been talking to you for these three nights, O Abu Hurairah?” Abu Hurairah said: “No.” The Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said: “That was Shaytaan.” [2]

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[1]

اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ۚلَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ۚلَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗمَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ۚيَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖوَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ۚوَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ۖوَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚوَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ [٢:٢٥٥]

“Allah – there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of [all] existence. Neither drowsiness overtakes Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they encompass not a thing of His knowledge except for what He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and their preservation tires Him not. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.”

[2] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree

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Indeed Allaah replaced for the Muslims that which the people of Jaahiliyyah used to do with this saying of his (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam):

أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّاتِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

“I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allaah from the evil of what He has created, then not a thing will harm him until he depart from that place.”

His (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) saying: “At-Taammaat”, i.e. The Perfect Words of Allaah: perfect in their occurrence and perfect in their truthfulness. And perfect also from the aspect of the obligation in acting upon them, and to act upon what they command, and to abstain from what they forbid. The one who does not believe in them, then there is no safety for him, and he shall receive his just recompense after death and in the Barzakh and on the Day of Resurrection. And there occurs in another verse, His saying (the Mighty and Majestic):

وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ صِدْقًا وَعَدْلًا ۚلَّا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِهِ ۚوَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ [٦:١١٥]

“And the word of your Lord has been fulfilled perfectly in truth and in justice. None can alter His words, and He is the Hearing, the Knowing.”

The Words of Allaah are described with perfection; perfection of the truth, and credibility due to His saying:

وَتَمَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ صِدْقًا

“And the word of your Lord has been fulfilled perfectly in truth…”

Meaning it is true, containing no lies or falsehood. It is just, containing no oppression. Due to the limitations in the people of truthfulness from the followers of the Messengers, who are the believers, then the truth that they speak [in accordance with what they know] is less. So the believer may say something considering himself to be truthful, but there may enter into his speech that which opposes the reality [of the situation]. So truthfulness differs in that person due to him not being aware, alongside the fact that those who speak with this speech take care in being truthful, and they are cautious in that. And likewise there enters into the speech of the believers who are from the people of truth, and those who adorn themselves with it such that the one who speaks with it considers it to be completely just, yet there enters into it something of injustice due to the fact that he does he does not know, because of the weakness in his knowledge of that affair.

As for the Speech of Allaah, then it necessitates complete perfection of Sidq, and complete fulfillment of justice due to His complete and perfect knowledge, the Majestic and Most High, and His complete and perfect justice. So this is the meaning of His saying:

أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّاتِ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ

“I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allaah from evil of what He has created.”

Al-Asfahaanee stated in the book, “Al-Hujjah”:

“The devils colluded with one another against the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) and they wished to prevent him from his prayer and to cut it off. So many devils descended led by the Great Devil, and he had with him bright flame of fire, or a meteor of fire. So Jibreel came to the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) and taught him the following words words:

أَعُوذُ بِكَلِمَاتِ اللَّهِ التَّامَّاتِ الَّتِي لَا يُجَاوِزُهُنَّ بَرٌّ وَلَا فَاجِرٌ مِنْ شَرِّ مَا خَلَقَ وَذَرَأَ وَبَرَأَ وَمِنْ شَرِّ مَا يَنْزِلُ مِنْ السَّمَاءِ وَمِنْ شَرِّ مَا يَعْرُجُ فِيهَا وَمِنْ شَرِّ مَا ذَرَأَ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمِنْ شَرِّ مَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْهَا وَمِنْ شَرِّ فِتَنِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَمِنْ شَرِّ كُلِّ طَارِقٍ إِلَّا طَارِقًا يَطْرُقُ بِخَيْرٍ يَا رَحْمَنُ

“I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allaah that are not transgressed by a righteous one nor a sinner, from the evil of what He created, and He produced, and He made – and from the evil of what He sends down from the sky, and from the evil of what ascends into it – and from the evil of what is produced in the earth, and the evil of what comes out of it, and from the evil of the tribulations of the night and day – and from the evil of every night visitor, except the visitor who visits with good, O Most Merciful.” (Ahmad in al-Musnad, no. 15035, from the hadeeth of Abdur-Rahmaan b. Khanbash (radiyallaahu ‘anhu). Muwatta of Maalik, in Kitaab al-Jaami’.)

So he said these words and the bright flames of the Shayateen were extinguished, and made dull, and they returned back unsuccessful and overpowered. So all praise is due to Allaah for compensating His believing servants with this supplication – and for making clear for them that which will give them shelter and refuge with Him by way of His perfect words.”

What is understood from this hadeeth is the following:

1. It is a proof that the Qur’an is the speech of Allaah, not created. Some of the Salaf said: The one who says that the Qur’aan is created has disbelieved. [1]

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[1] Imaam Abu Ja’far Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Masree at-Tahaawee from Tahaa in Egypt stated in his tremendous work entitled, Al-‘Aqeedatut-Tahaawiyyah: “And the Qur’aan is the speech of Allaah. From Him it began without us knowing how He speaks. He revealed it to the Messenger as revelation. The believers then attested to the truth of it, and they were certain that it is the Speech of Allaah in reality, not created like the of the speech of the creation. So whoever hears it and claims that it is the speech of a human has disbelieved.” Abu Muhammad Al-Hasan b. Ali b. Khalaf al-Barbahaaree said in his book, Sharhus-Sunnah: “The Qur’aan is the Speech of Allaah and His Revelation and His Light. It is not created because it is from Allaah, and that which is from Allaah is not created. This is what was said by Maalik b. Anas and Ahmad b. Hanbal, and by the scholars before them and after them, and to dispute it is to disbelieve.”

—-

2. It is understood from this hadeeth that seeking refuge with the Jinn or anything else is forbidden. It is Major Shirk that removes one from the fold of the Religion. For this reason if a person claims that the Devils can repel from him that which none but Allaah can repel, or he claims that these Devils have the ability similar to the ability of Allaah, or even greater ability, then he has disbelieved with a disbelief that exits him from the Religion.

3. Whoever seeks refuge in Allaah’s perfect words from the evil that He created, then Allaah gives him refuge and nothing will harm him in that place where he has uttered these words upon settling there, until he departs from that place.

4. The one who utters these words in the morning, Allaah will preserve him till the evening. The one who utters these words in the evening, Allaah will preserve him till the morning. The one who utters these words before sleeping, Allaah will preserve him until he wakes up.

5. Allaah compensated the Muslims by the good and beneficial utterances of seeking refuge instead of that which the people of Jaahiyyah would seek refuge with. Supplications that repel the Devils from the worshipping Muslim, and prevent evil from him, and actualize Tawheed for Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

6. The excellence of this du’aa alongside the fact that it is brief.

Note regarding seeking protection with the creation:

Seeking refuge and protection with the creation is permitted in that which the creation has ability over. However it is necessary for a person that he says: “I seek Allaah’s protection then yours.” Or: “I seek refuge with Allaah, then with you.” Or: “I seek shelter with Allaah then with you, that you will fulfill my need, or you will repel from me such and such a matter.” So if a Muslim does that alongside seeking shelter and protection from Allaah, then such a person is not a Mushrik, with the condition that the servant is capable of that affair.

 

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