No Muslim Exits Islaam Unless He Perpetrates That Which Nullifies It. By Al-Barbahaaree, Explanation of Al-Fawzaan

BISMILLAH

Imaam Abu Muhammad Al-Hasan b. `Alee b. Khalaf al-Barbahaaree (died 329H, rahimahullaah) stated in his Sharhus-Sunnah (point 41):

ولا يخرج أحد من أهل القبلة من الإسلام حتى يرد آية من كتاب الله عز وجل أو يرد شيئا من آثار رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أو يصلي لغير الله أو يذبح لغير الله وإذا فعل شيئا من ذلك فقد وجب عليك أن تخرجه من الإسلام فإذا لم يفعل شيئا من ذلك فهو مؤمن ومسلم بالاسم لا بالحقيقة

And no Muslim is removed from Islaam (from Ahlul-Qiblah) except if he rejects a verse from the Book of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, or he rejects anything from the [authentic] narrations of Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam), or if he prays to other than Allaah, or if he slaughters to other than Allaah. If he does any of these affairs then it is binding upon you to exit him from Islaam. However, if he does not fall into any of these, then he is a Believer (Mu’min) and a Muslim by name, even if he is not so in reality.    

Explanation of Shaikh al-Fawzaan:

It-haaf al-Qaaree of Shaikh al-Fawzaan vol. 1, p. 273 onwards):

No one is removed from the ranks of Ahlul-Qiblah (i.e. the Muslims) and Islaam except if he commits a nullifier from the well-known nullifiers of Islaam whilst he has no excuses to do so.

His saying:

أو يرد شيئا من آثار رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

“..or he rejects anything from the [authentic] narrations of Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam)..”

If a person denies or rejects the Qur’aan or some of it, or he denies or rejects the authentic Sunnah or some of it, then such is person is judged with apostasy (riddah) because of the fact that he has denied the truthfulness of Allaah and His Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam). This is the case so long as he is not ignorant, or a blind follower, or one who has a faulty understanding or a false interpretation – and if this is the case, then that is explained to him. And if that (i.e. his false understanding) is explained to him, yet he persists, then he is judged with apostasy.

The intent behind the saying: narrations of Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam)..” is the Hadeeths.

His saying:

أو يرد شيئا من آثار رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

“..or he rejects anything from the [authentic] narrations of Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam)..”

Meaning: That in that case he has disbelieved. This is a tremendous principle with Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah that is opposed by two groups:

  • The First Group: The Khawaarij, the extremists (Al-Ghullaat) – those who make takfeer (declare Muslims to be unbelievers) based upon the commission of Major Sins short of Shirk.
  • The Second Group: The sect of the Murji’a – those who say that Imaam (faith) is not harmed by the commission of sins. So long as a person is a believer in his heart, then nothing from sins can harm him, even if he was abandon all deeds completely and he does not do any righteous acts, he is still a Mu’min (Believer), perfect in Imaan!

As for Ahlus-Sunnah, just as the author has mentioned, are in the middle path between these two groups. Ahlus-Sunnah hold that the Major Sins vary: If the Major Sin is from Major Polytheism (Shirk) or Major Unbelief (Kufr), then that exits a person from the Religion by the consensus of the scholars (ijmaa`). However, if the Major sin is not Major Kufr or Major Shirk,

  • And it is not a denial (Tak’dheeb) of the Book of Allaah or the Sunnah of Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam)
  • And one does not abandon the Daily Prayers (the Salaah);
  • And he does not supplicate to other than Allaah
  • And he does not slaughter an animal to other than Allaah..

..then [outside of these] it is a Major Sin lesser than Major Shirk and Kufr, and therefore the Muslim does not exit Islaam due to those sins. And this position is in opposition to the Khawaarij and Mu`tazilah.

However Ahlus-Sunnah hold that these sins harm the Believer, they reduce his Imaan and weaken it. And this position is in opposition to the Murji’ah who say that sins do not harm in the presence of Imaam.

So that is the balanced Madh’hab (path) which gathers between the revealed texts that threaten with punishment and those texts that promise reward.

The Khawaarij and Mu`tazilah only take the Revealed Texts relating to the threats of punishment and they leave alone the Texts related to the promise of reward. The Murji’ah are the opposite: they take only the Texts related to the promise of reward and leave off the Texts related to the threats of punishment. So both of these groups are misguided.

His saying:

أو يصلي لغير الله أو يذبح لغير الله

“..or if he prays to other than Allaah, or if he slaughters to other than Allaah..”

If a person prays to a grave seeking nearness to it, or he prostrates to an idol, or he slaughters an animal to other than Allaah or he performs an act of worship to other than Allaah, then such a person is a Polytheist, and an Unbeliever, one who has exited Islaam. As for other than this then [he remains a Muslim] – and Ahlus-Sunnah take the middle path between the Murji’ah and the Khawaarij.

His saying:

وإذا فعل شيئا من ذلك فقد وجب عليك أن تخرجه من الإسلام

“If he does any of these affairs then it is binding upon you to exit him from Islaam.”

If he does anything from these affairs [that nullify Islaam] meaning that prays to other than Allaah, or slaughters to other than Allaah or he performs worship directed to other than Allaah, then it is obligatory upon you to remove him from Islaam, and it is obligatory for you to believe that he is an Unbeliever. And do not say: “This does not concern me,” or, “I do not know his condition.” Rather it is obligatory upon you to declare an Unbeliever to be an Unbeliever or a Mushrik [if that is truly the case]. And that you declare a sinner who commits Major Sins short of Shirk to be sinner (a faasiq) – it is necessary to clarify the truth in this matter.

His saying:

فإذا لم يفعل شيئا من ذلك فهو مؤمن ومسلم بالاسم لا بالحقيقة

“However, if he does not fall into any of these, then he is a Believer (Mu’min) and a Muslim by name, even if he is not so in reality.”

Meaning: In what is apparent to us, whilst his hidden affair is left to Allaah.

End.

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