“Do they attribute as partners to Allaah who created nothing but they themselves are created?”: Shaikh Ahmad an-Najmee’s “Kitaab at-Tawheed” Chapter 14

“Ash-Sharh al-Moojaz al-Mumahhad li Tawheed al-Khaaliq al-Mumajjad alladhi allafahu Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad”
(The Concise, Simple and Straight-forward Explanation of the Tawheed of the Exalted Creator – which was Authored by the Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab)

Sharh-Moojaz-An-Najmee

This is an explanation of Kitaab at-Tawheed of Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab (d. 1206H, rahimahullaah) by ash-Shaikh al-Allaamah Ahmad b. Yahyaa an-Najmee (rahimahullaah).

So Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

Chapter 14: “Do they associate with Him those who create nothing and they are [themselves] created? And the false deities are unable to [give] them help nor can they help themselves.”

The saying of Allaah, the Most High,

أَيُشْرِكُونَ مَا لَا يَخْلُقُ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ

وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ لَهُمْ نَصْرًا

“Do they associate with Him those who create nothing and they are [themselves] created? And the false deities are unable to [give] them help nor can they help themselves.”

(Al-A`raaf: 191-192)

وَالَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ مَا يَمْلِكُونَ مِن قِطْمِيرٍ

“And those whom you invoke other than Him do not possess [as much as] the membrane of a date seed.”

(Faatir: 13)

And it is recorded in the Saheeh from Anas who said: “The Prophet was struck on the day of the battle of Uhud and his tooth was broken. So he said:

“How will a people who strike their Prophet prosper?!”

Then Allaah revealed:

لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ

“Not for you, [O Muhammad, but for Allah ], is the decision..”

(Aali `Imraan: 128)

(Bukhaaree, Book of Battles. Muslim, Book of Jihaad)

Also in the Saheeh from Ibn `Umar (radiyallaahu `anhumaa) that he heard Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) say when raising his head from rukoo` (bowing) from the final rak`ah of the Fajr prayer: “O Allaah, curse so-and-so and so-and-so.” He said that after saying: “Allaah hears whoever praises Him. Our Lord, for you is all praise.” So Allaah revealed:

لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ

“Not for you, [O Muhammad, but for Allah ], is the decision..”

(Aali `Imraan: 128)

In another narration it is reported that the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) supplicated against Safwaan bin Umayyah, Suhail bin `Amr and al-Haarith bin Hishaam, so Allaah revealed the verse:

لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ

“Not for you, [O Muhammad, but for Allah ], is the decision..”

(Reported by al-Bukhaaree)

It is further reported in the Saheeh from Abu Hurairah (radiyallaahu `anhu) who said: Allaah’s Messenger stood up when it was revealed to him:

وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ

“And warn, [O Muhammad], your closest kindred.”

(Ash-Shu`araa’: 214)

So he (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said:

“O people of Quraish, purchase your own souls! I will not be able to benefit you in front of Allaah at all! O `Abbaas Ibn `Abdil-Muttalib, I cannot benefit you in front of Allaah at all! O Safiyyah, paternal aunt of Allaah’s Messenger, I cannot benefit you in front of Allaah at all! O Faatimah bint Muhammad, ask me of my wealth whatever you wish, but I cannot benefit you in front of Allaah at all!”

(Reported by al-Bukhaaree)

Important Issues of the Chapter:

  1. Explanation of the two verses.
  2. The story of Uhud.
  3. The Qunoot of the leader of the Messengers Muhammad (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) whilst those behind him were leaders of pious believers (i.e. the Sahaabah) – whilst all along they were Ameen to his supplications.
  4. Those being supplicated against were the unbelievers.
  5. These unbelievers did things that most of the unbelievers did not do. From the things they did was to strike their Prophet and their striving to kill him – and their mutilating the bodies of the Companions alongside the fact they were the sons of their uncles.
  6. Concerning this Allaah revealed to him the following verse:  لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ “Not for you, [O Muhammad, but for Allah ], is the decision..”
  7. The statement of Allaah: أَوْ يَتُوبَ عَلَيْهِمْ أَوْ يُعَذِّبَهُمْ  “Whether He (the Most High) turns in mercy to pardon them or whether He punishes them.” (3: 128)
  8. The Qunoot can be done in the time of calamities.
  9. Naming those who are supplicated against in the Prayer as well as the names of their fathers.
  10. Cursing a particular person by name in the Prayer (Qunoot).
  11. The story behind the revelation of the verse: وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ “And warn, [O Muhammad], your closest kindred.”
  12. His seriousness concerning what he did due to which he was labelled as being insane – and likewise is the situation today if a Muslim was to do the same [call to Tawheed].
  13. His saying to those far from him in relation and those close relatives: “I cannot benefit you in front of Allaah at all,” until he even said: “O Faatimah daughter of Muhammad, I cannot benefit you in front of Allaah at all.” And if that is what the Messenger said clearly, and he is the leader of all of the Messengers – that he cannot benefit the leader of the womenfolk of the worlds – and a person knows and believes that the Messenger does not speak except the truth. Then when one looks at what has settled into the hearts of particular individuals in this time; then Tawheed will be clear to him as well as the strangeness of the Deen [in these times].
Explanation:

The saying of Allaah:

أَيُشْرِكُونَ مَا لَا يَخْلُقُ شَيْئًا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ

“Do they associate with Him those who create nothing and they are [themselves] created?”

(Al-A`raaf: 191)

The hamza (أ) at the beginning of the verse denotes an accusatory question. And it entails the fact that the Mushrikoon (polytheists) associate partners in worship with Allaah by way of worshipping that which cannot create anything, rather what they worship is itself created. So this verse contains a rebuke upon the Mushrikeen due to the fact that they made these gods artificially (handmade) as partners unto Allaah, yet these handmade gods cannot create a thing – and this god cannot create itself by itself, and it cannot create other than itself. And the Mushriks of those times did not believe that their idol gods could create, nor did they believe that a god [they made themselves] had the ability to create anything else, nor the ability to create itself. So the Mushriks (polytheists) of that time affirmed this and knew this. They knew that these gods had no ability to do anything by themselves. However the dubious doubt entered upon them due to the fact they believed that these objects of worship were images of righteous people who’s supplications Allaah would answer, and that Allaah would accept their intercession in that which the people sought intercession for. So if the people sought from them help, then these gods would ask Allaah on their behalf – and they believed that Allaah would not refuse their request. And this is a Satanic deception, and a trick of Iblees. How many people has Shaytaan deceived in this manner. They forgot that these objects of worship cannot even hear their supplications and they are not able to answer them nor to assist them in any way in that which they request. It is Allaah who hears their supplications, and it is He alone who is able to answer them. So it was obligatory upon them to abandon these objects of worship that cannot even hear, nor see, nor speak – rather they should turn their worship towards Allaah who is able over these affairs. Allaah is the One who creates, He is the One who provides sustenance, He gives life, He is the One who gives death, He is the One who brings illness, and He is the One who cures the illness. He is the One who gives wealth and riches, and He is the One who takes away wealth and riches, and He makes whoever He chooses poor. He is the One who brings life into existence and He terminates it. He is the One who brings about happiness by guidance to the means of happiness and He is the One who brings about wretchedness by the deserting the servant, and due to the mastery of the Shaytaan over a person [by Allaah’s permission] until the servant becomes wretched.

Therefore it is obligatory upon every person that he directs his requests to Allaah alone to the exclusion of anyone besides Him. Allaah indicates this inability of these gods and the absence of any ability by His saying:

وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ لَهُمْ نَصْرًا وَلَا أَنفُسَهُمْ يَنصُرُونَ

“And the false deities are unable to [give] them help, nor can they help themselves.”

(Al-A`raaf 7:192)

Then the author mentions another evidence regarding the inability of the gods of the polytheists and that is His saying:

وَالَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ مَا يَمْلِكُونَ مِن قِطْمِيرٍ

“And those whom you invoke other than Him do not possess [as much as] the membrane of a date seed.”

And this is after He, the Most High, mentions the types of His own ability:

وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَكُمْ أَزْوَاجًا ۚ

“And Allah created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop; then He made you mates..” mentioning His ability and dominion, He states:

وَالَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ مَا يَمْلِكُونَ مِن قِطْمِيرٍ

“And those whom you invoke other than Him do not possess [as much as] the membrane of a date seed.”

(Faatir: 11-13)

And the intent of Qitmeer is the skin that remains upon the seed or date-stone. Then Allaah states concerning the defectiveness, inability and weakness of their gods that they made with their own hands and then gave them the rights of the Diety and worship (al-Uloohiyyah):

إِن تَدْعُوهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُوا دُعَاءَكُمْ وَلَوْ سَمِعُوا مَا اسْتَجَابُوا لَكُمْ ۖ

“If you invoke them, they do not hear your supplication; and if they heard, they would not be able to respond to you.”

Meaning: Even if they were able to hear your supplications because of the fact they were at one stage alive, then regardless of that, they are still not able to answer..

وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَكْفُرُونَ بِشِرْكِكُمْ ۚ وَلَا يُنَبِّئُكَ مِثْلُ خَبِيرٍ

“And on the Day of Resurrection they will deny your association. And none can inform you like [one] Acquainted [with all matters].”

(Faatir: 11-14)

Meaning they will deny your supplication to them instead of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

[Continued:]

His saying:

And it is recorded in the Saheeh from Anas who said: “The Prophet was struck on the day of the battle of Uhud and his tooth was broken. So he said:

“How will a people who strike their Prophet prosper?!”

Then Allaah revealed:

لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ

“Not for you, [O Muhammad, but for Allah ], is the decision..”

(Aali `Imraan: 128)

There are many benefits that can be extracted from this Hadeeth:

  1. That Allaah may put His Awliyaa and beloved ones to trial with various trials. And if that is the case with the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) and he is the most beloved of the created beings to Allaah, and the most noble of them, and the best of them in rank – that Allaah placed upon him (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) trials to the extent that his people caused him distress and broke his teeth. So it is more likely that other than him will be tried and tested with tribulations.
  2. This trial shows the prestige, honour and great esteem of the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) to the point that he gathered together patience in times of tribulation and gratitude in times of bounty and blessings.
  3. In this hadeeth there is a refutation of the Sufis in that which they claim of the miracles of their “sheikhs”. From these miracles is what is said by some of the followers of the Sufi Path of Ar-Rifaa`ee: “From the honour endowed upon the followers of this Rifaa`ee path is that one from them when thrust by a saber or a sword into his back such that it goes through and comes out of his chest, that when it is withdrawn, it causes the person no injury and no harm.” This is a mighty fabrication and lie, and it is misguidance. (See “Tarbiyatunaa ar-Rawhiyyah” of Sa`eed Hawaa, p. 218)
  4. The Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) did not obtain what he obtained of honour and nobility and aid except after receiving harm and great trials.
  5. This proves that there is no individual from the created beings who can change anything in the dominion of Allaah or dispose of the affairs- rather it is Allaah who disposes the affairs in His dominion to the exclusion of others.
  6. In His saying: لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ “Not for you [O Muhammad] is the decision” – therein is a refutation of the Sufis who claim regarding some of those whom they worship (i.e. the “saints”), that Allaah has given them the right to dispose of the affairs of the universe (i.e. control of them). This is the belief of the extreme Sufis of these times. The Sufis call them, “Muddarrikeen”, meaning those who undertake the responsibility of, or caretakers of, the universe. How they lie, and how misguided they are. Even the cattle know their Lord better than these Sufis. Upon them from Allaah is what they deserve.

Then Shaikhul-Islaam Ibn `Abdul-Wahhaab stated:

Also in the Saheeh from Ibn `Umar (radiyallaahu `anhumaa) that he heard Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) say when raising his head from rukoo` (bowing) from the final rak`ah of the Fajr prayer: “O Allaah, curse so-and-so and so-and-so.” He said that after saying: “Allaah hears whoever praises Him. Our Lord, for you is all praise.” So Allaah revealed:

لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنَ الْأَمْرِ شَيْءٌ

“Not for you, [O Muhammad, but for Allah ], is the decision..”

Meaning that the Messenger supplicated against Safwaan Ibn Umayyah, Suhayl Ibn `Amr, and Al-Haarith Ibn Hishaam. Allaah knew that they would become supporters of His Religion. And in reality, it came about that Allaah guided them to Islaam, so they became Muslims. From those who became Muslim: Abu Sufyaan Ibn Harb, Suhayl Ibn `Amr, Safwaan Ibn Umayyah, Al-Haarith Ibn Hishaam, and `Ikrimah Ibn Abee Jahl. So Allaah revealed: “Not for you [O Muhammad] is the decision.” So this proves that the decision of the affairs is not for the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam), so what of other than him?! The affairs and decisions, all of them are for Allaah; the sovereignty of everything is solely for Allaah; the disposing and alteration of affairs, all of them are for Allaah. He does whatever He pleases, He raises and debases, He gives kingdoms and He takes them away, He enriches and He strikes with poverty, He gives life and He gives death. All the affairs are in His Hand; He writes for whomever He please happiness as an excellence and bounty from Himself, and He writes for whomever He pleases wretchedness from His Justice. He is not questioned concerning what He does, rather it is they, the created beings who will be questioned. So if the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) has no ability to do anything, then other than him from the creation have even less ability!

Then Shaikhul-Islaam Ibn `Abdul-Wahhaab stated:

It is further reported in the Saheeh from Abu Hurairah (radiyallaahu `anhu) who said: Allaah’s Messenger stood up when it was revealed to him:

وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الْأَقْرَبِينَ

“And warn, [O Muhammad], your closest kindred.”

(Ash-Shu`araa’: 214)

So he (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said:

“O people of Quraish, purchase your own souls! I will not be able to benefit you in front of Allaah at all! O `Abbaas Ibn `Abdil-Muttalib, I cannot benefit you in front of Allaah at all! O Safiyyah, paternal aunt of Allaah’s Messenger, I cannot benefit you in front of Allaah at all! O Faatimah bint Muhammad, ask me of my wealth whatever you wish, but I cannot benefit you in front of Allaah at all!”

The purchase of the souls occurs by having Imaan in Allaah and by following His Messenger – besides this there is nothing that can benefit the servant, so being a relative of the Awliyaa of Allaah or the righteous does not benefit, even if the closeness in relation be to the Messengers of strong resolve. Allaah informed us that Nooh (`alaihi salaam) was not able to benefit his own son. And Ibraaheem (`alaihi salaam) was not able to benefit his father – he did not have control over his guidance in the world, and he will not possess the ability to save him from the Fire on the Day of Resurrection. The Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) did not possess the ability to benefit his own parents, and he is not able to remove the punishment from them. Rather he stated (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) that they are from the people who will be in misery. He (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said:

“I sought permission from my Lord that I may seek forgiveness for my mother, so He did not permit me. I sought permission so that I may visit her grave, so He permitted me. So visit the graves, for indeed they remind one of death.”

(Muslim in Kitaabul-Janaa’iz, from Abu Hurairah)

أين أبي ؟ قال : في النار . قال : فأردت أن أقول : وأبوك يا رسول الله ؟ فرأيت الأخرى أجمل ، فقلت : وأهلك يا رسول الله ؟ فقال له رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم : إنَّ أبي وأباك في النار بربك إذا ما مررت بقبر قرشيٍّ أو ثقفيٍّ فقل له إنَّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم يبشرك بالنار

When he (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) was asked by a person: “Where is my [deceased] father?” He replied: “In the Hellfire.” So the man said: “I wanted to ask: And what of your father O Allaah’s Messenger?” But I saw a better way of asking, so I said: “And your family O Allaah’s Messenger?” So Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said to him: “Indeed my father and your father are in the Hellfire. By your Lord, if you were to pass by a grave of a Qurashee or Thaqafee, inform him that indeed Allaah’s Messenger gives you tidings of the Fire.”

(Al-Haakim in Al-Mustadrak `Alas-Saheehayn, no. 8683, 4/605. Musnad of Ahmad, no. 1625. Muslim in his Saheeh, Kitaabul-Imaan, from Anas Ibn Maalik)

Its meaning is that the ahlul-Fatrah are in the Fire (i.e. those who lived before the Prophet Muhammad was sent as a Messenger). They are not excused due to their ignorance, because ignorance in the [fundamentals of the] `Aqeedah is not excused. Those narrations that mention the testing of the people on the Day of Judgement, then they do not include Ahlul-Fatrah. It is possible those narrations apply to the insane, who was created like that and those similar to him.


[Note: Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said:

أَرْبَعَةٌ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ، يَعْنِي يَدُلُّونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ بِحُجَّةٍ : رَجُلٌ أَصَمُّ لا يَسْمَعُ ، وَرَجُلٌ أَحْمَقُ ، وَرَجُلٌ هَرِمٌ ، وَرَجُلٌ مَاتَ فِي فَتْرَةٍ ، فَأَمَّا الأَصَمُّ ، فَيَقُولُ : رَبِّ لَقَدْ جَاءَ الإِسْلامُ وَمَا أَسْمَعُ شَيْئًا ، وَأَمَّا الأَحْمَقُ ، فَيَقُولُ : رَبِّ ، لَقَدْ جَاءَ الإِسْلامُ وَالصِّبْيَانُ يَحْذِفُونَنِي بِالْبَعْرِ ، وَأَمَّا الْهَرِمُ فَيَقُولُ : رَبِّ ، لَقَدْ جَاءَ الإِسْلامُ وَمَا أَعْقِلُ شَيْئًا ، وَأَمَّا الَّذِي مَاتَ فِي فَتْرَةٍ ، فَيَقُولُ : رَبِّ مَا أتَانِي الرَّسُولُ ، فَيَأْخُذُ مَوَاثِيقَهُمْ لَيُطِيعُنَّهُ ، وَيُرْسِلُ إِلَيْهِمْ : أَنِ ادْخُلُوا النَّارَ ، فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ لَوْ دَخَلُوهَا مَا كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ إِلا بَرْدًا وَسَلامًا ، وَبِهَذَا الإِسْنَادِ ، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ ، عَنِ الْحَسَنِ ، عَنْ أَبِي رَافِعٍ ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ، بِنَحْوٍ مِنْ هَذَا ، وَهَذَا إِسْنَادٌ صَحِيحٌ

“There are four who will be judged by Allaah on the Day of Resurrection: A deaf person who cannot hear, an insane person, an old [senile] person, a man who died between Messengers.

As for the deaf one, he will say: “Islaam came and I did not hear a thing.”

The insane will say: “Islaam came and children were pelting me with dung.”

The old man will say: “Islaam came and I did not comprehend a thing.”

As for the one who died in between the sending of the Messengers (ahlul-Fatrah), he will say: “No Messenger came to me.”

Then a covenant will be taken from them that they will surely obey Him. Then a Messenger will be sent to them commanding them to enter the Fire [in obedience to Allaah].

By Him in whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad, if they enter it, they will not find it except cool and peaceful.”

(Musnad of Imaam Ahmad 16301, 16302. Al-Albaanee in As-Saheehah, no. 1434)

Imaan an-Nawawee stated in his “Sharh of Saheeh Muslim” regarding the hadeeth: “Indeed my father and your father are in Hellfire.”

وَفِيهِ أَنَّ مَنْ مَاتَ فِي الْفَتْرَةِ عَلَى مَا كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِ الْعَرَبُ مِنْ عِبَادَةِ الْأَوْثَانِ فَهُوَ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ ، وَلَيْسَ هَذَا مُؤَاخَذَةٌ قَبْلَ بُلُوغِ الدَّعْوَةِ ، فَإِنَّ هَؤُلَاءِ كَانَتْ قَدْ بَلَغَتْهُمْ دَعْوَةُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَغَيْرِهِ مِنَ الْأَنْبِيَاءِ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى وَسَلَامُهُ عَلَيْهِمْ

“In this hadeeth there is a proof that whoever from those Arabs that died upon that which they used to worship of the idols before the sending of the Messenger, then they will be in the Fire. And this is not considered as taking them to account before the da`wah [of Islaam] had been conveyed to them. That is because the da`wah of the Prophet Ibraaheem and other than him from the Prophets (`alaihimus-salaam) had reached them.”

Ibn Katheer stated that it is possible to gather between these texts by concluding that Allaah informed the Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) that his parents would not believe when they are tested on the Day of Resurrection, so therefore they would be deserving of the Fire.]


There are a people who claim that Allaah brought the parents of the Prophet (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) to life and they believed in Him. Whoever states this has based his view upon a fabricated hadeeth, the hadeeth is false and fabricated. As for the previous narrations regarding the fact that his parents are in Hell, are reported in Saheeh Muslim. Furthermore, it is known that one’s Imaan is not affirmed except in the life of this World. So if a person dies upon a belief containing something of Shirk (polytheism), then he will remain eternally in the Hellfire. The nearness of blood line to a relative will not avail him, even if that relative is the best of creation in the sight of Allaah and the most beloved to Him. So having Imaan (Faith) after the passing away of one’s life is not considered as beneficial Imaan, to the extent that even the repentance (tawbah) of a person is not accepted after the soul is drawn out. Allaah, the Most High, said:

فَلَمْ يَكُ يَنفَعُهُمْ إِيمَانُهُمْ لَمَّا رَأَوْا بَأْسَنَا ۖ سُنَّتَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي قَدْ خَلَتْ فِي عِبَادِهِ ۖ وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ الْكَافِرُونَ

“Then their Faith (in Islamic Monotheism) could not avail them when they saw Our punishment. (Like) this has been the way of Allah in dealing with His slaves. And there the disbelievers lost utterly (when Our Torment covered them).”

(Ghaafir: 85)

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