Ahmad an-Najmee’s Kitaab at-Tawheed Chapter 4: The Call To Testify To The Fact That None Has The Right To Be Worshipped Except Allaah

“Ash-Sharh al-Moojaz al-Mumahhad li Tawheed al-Khaaliq al-Mumajjad alladhi allafahu Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad”
(The Concise, Simple and Straight-forward Explanation of the Tawheed of the Exalted Creator – which was Authored by the Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab)

Sharh-Moojaz-An-Najmee

This is an explanation of Kitaab at-Tawheed of Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab (d. 1206H, rahimahullaah) by ash-Shaikh al-Allaamah Ahmad b. Yahyaa an-Najmee (rahimahullaah).

So Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab (rahimahullaah) said:

Chapter 4: The Call To Testify To The Fact That None Has The Right To Be Worshipped Except Allaah

The saying of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic:

قُلْ هَٰذِهِ سَبِيلِي أَدْعُو إِلَى اللَّهِ ۚ عَلَىٰ بَصِيرَةٍ أَنَا وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِي ۖ وَسُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Say, “This is my way; I invite to Allah with insight, I and those who follow me. And exalted is Allah; and I am not of those who associate others with Him.” [Yusuf 12: 108]

From Ibn Abbaas (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) that when Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) sent Mu’aadh (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) to Yemen, he said to him:

“Indeed you are going to a people who from the People of the Book, so let the first thing that you call them to be the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah”

In a narration there occurs the wording:

“That they single out Allaah alone in worship. And if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allaah has obligated upon them five daily prayers in every day and night. And if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allaah has obligated upon them to give charity that is taken from their wealthy ones and given to their poor ones. If they obey you in that, then beware of taken the best of their wealth – and fear the supplication of the oppressed, for indeed there is not between it and Allaah any screen.”

[The first narration was collected by Muslim in Kitaabul-Imaan. The second narration was collected by al-Bukhaaree in Kitaabut-Tawheed. Then there occurs in yet another wording: “Let the first thing you call them to be the sole worship of Allaah.” as collected by al-Bukhaaree in Kitaabuz-Zakaat.]

Bukhaaree and Muslim also report from Sahl b. Sa’d (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) that Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said on the day of the battle of Khaibar:

“Indeed I will give the standard of battle tomorrow to a man who loves Allaah and His Messenger and whom Allaah and His Messenger love. And Allaah will grant victory at his hands.”

So the people spent the night discussing and debating who would receive the standard. So when the following morning arrived, they went to Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) each one hoping that he would receive it. The Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said:

“Where is ‘Alee b. Abee Taalib?”

It was said: “He has an ailment in his eyes.” So the Messenger sent for him, and he was brought. Then Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) spat in his eyes and supplicated for him. He was cured as if he had not had any pain. Then Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) gave him the standard, and said:

“Go forth steadily with ease until you reach their settlement. Then call them to Islaam, and inform them of their obligations with respect to the rights of Allaah, the Most High, for by Allaah, that one man is guided by way of you is better for you than red camels.”

Important Issues In This Chapter:

1. That calling to Allaah is the path of those who follow Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam).

2. Attention here is given to sincerity because many of those who call to the truth only call to themselves in reality.

[This is taken from what is said in the aayah, “I call to Allaah.” Meaning sincerely to Allaah. Ibn Uthaimeen.]

3. To have sure-sightedness of knowledge is from the obligations [when calling to Allaah].

4. From the indications of the beauty of Tawheed is being free from ill speech regarding Allaah.

[This is taken from the saying of Allaah, the Most High: “And exalted is Allah, free of all imperfections.” The saying of the author “ill speech regarding Allaah” refers to likening the Creator to the creation. Ibn Uthaimeen, Qawlul-Mufeed.]

5. From the ugliness of Shirk is that it entails blasphemy towards Allaah.

6. And this from the most important of them, that a Muslim should stay away from idolators so he does not become like them even if does not commit Shirk.

7. Tawheed is the first obligation.

8. That a person begins with Tawheed before all else, even before the prayer.

9. The meaning of “that they single Allaah out” is in fact the testimony, “none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah.”

10. That a person may be from the People of the Book yet he does not know the testimony of Tawheed (the Shahaadah). Or he may know it but does not act in accordance to it.

11. Giving attention to teaching people in stages.

12. That one begins his call with the most important affair then the most important after that and so on.

13. How Zakaat is to be spent.

14. That the Scholar must remove any doubts that the one learning has.

15. The forbiddance of taking the best of the wealth of the people for Zakaat.

16. Being afraid of the supplication of the oppressed.

17. Informing of the fact that there is no barrier between the supplication of the oppressed and Allaah.

18. From the proofs of the correctness of Tawheed is what occurred to the leader of the Messengers and to the best of the Awliyaa by way of hardship, hunger and afflictions.

19. The saying of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam): “I shall indeed give the standard of battle to someone..” until the end of the hadeeth, is from the signs of prophethood.

20. The applying of saliva of Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) to the eyes of Alee (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) is also a sign of prophethood.

21. In this chapter is a proof of the excellence of ‘Alee (radiyallaahu ‘anhu).

22. The excellence of the Companions in their discussing this matter throughout that night and their busying themselves regarding the tidings of victory.

23. To have faith in the Pre-Decree due to the standard being given to one who did not seek it and it being withheld from those who sought it.

24. The good manner in the saying of the Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) to ‘Alee: “Proceed steadily at ease..”

25. That calling to Allaah precedes fighting.

26. That it is permitted [for the Muslim Ruler in charge of a country] to fight those who have been previously invited to Islaam but refused.

27. Inviting to Allaah is done with wisdom due to his (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) saying: “Inform them regarding that which is obligatory upon them.”

28. Recognising the right and duty to Allaah in Islaam.

29. The reward for the one through whose hand even one person is guided.

30. To swear by Allaah when issuing a fatwa (as the Messenger did whilst directing ‘Alee).

____

The Explanation of the Chapter:

Ash-Shaikh al-Allaamah Ahmad b. Yahyaa an-Najmee (rahimahullaah) said:

Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, said to his Prophet (salalallaahu alaihi wassallam): Say to them O Muhammad: “This is my Path.” i.e. this is my practice, this is my Path, and “I call to Allaah,” i.e. I call to singling Him out alone with worship, the Majestic and Most High – and to leave off whatever is called upon besides Him, regardless of whether that be Prophets or the righteous, or whether it be stones, or idols or other than that.

That is because it is Allaah who has created us and He is the One who provides for us. He is the One who controls our affairs – and our souls are in His hands, and our hearts are between His two Fingers. So it is not permitted that worship be directed to any one besides Him, and it is not permitted to call upon other than Him, or to call to the worship of other than Him. All of this is forbidden and it is not permitted to act in that manner.

Therefore, the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alahi wassallam) is saying: Know O people! That this is my Practice, my Path that I tread, and I call to Allaah “with sure-sighted knowledge (baseerah)” from the Book of my Lord, or that which He has revealed to me from the Sunnah. The Messenger continued to say, “me and those who follow me.” Meaning: they emulate and follow me in this Path.

[Ibn Uthaimeen stated that sure-sighted knowledge necessitates knowledge of what you are calling to, knowledge of the condition of those whom you are calling. This da’wah encompasses knowledge  and ikhlaas (sincerity). See Qawlul-Mufeed, p. 85]

From Ibn Abbaas (radiyallaahu ‘anhumaa) that when Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) sent Mu’aadh (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) to Yemen, he said to him:

“Indeed you are going to a people who from the People of the Book, so let the first thing that you call them to be the testimony that none has the right to be worshipped except Allaah”

In a narration there occurs the wording:

“That they single out Allaah alone in worship.”

This is the testimony of faith, the Shahaadah and it encompasses Tawheed – and it includes both negation and affirmation. So the term: “laa ilaaha illallaah” i.e. that there is no diety except for Allaah, means “laa ma’booda bi haqqin ghairillaah” i.e. that there none that is deserving of worship besides Allaah. So the term, “illallaah” (except Allaah) is affirmation of worship being solely for Allaah, and that He is singled out alone as the Deity or God to be worshipped to the exclusion of others besides Him.

[Ibn Uthaimeen stated that Mu’aadh was sent to San’aa (and the surrounding area) in Yemen and Abu Moosaa al-Ash’aree to Aden (and the surrounding area) in the tenth year after Hijrah. They were commanded to invite them to Islaam, to keep the people united and to make things easy for them and not hard. See Qawlul-Mufeed, p.86,’;’;]

And their occurs in a report of this hadeeth: “ilaa an yuwahhidullaaha” (that they single Allaah out alone), meaning: that that single Him out alone with worship. He continued (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam): “And if they obey you in that”, meaning: That they agree with you, and they accept that from you, and they act in accordance to it, “then inform them that Allaah has obligated upon them five prayers in every day and night.”

I say: The testimony that there is none worthy of worship except for Allaah is not accepted except with its counterpart which is the testimony that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam). So anyone who does not come with the two testimonies combined is not counted amongst the Muslims up until he gathers between the Oneness of Allaah and singling Him out, with the testimony that Muhammad is His Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam). So if he realises the two testimonies believing them in his heart and pronouncing them upon his tongue, then he is a submissive person of Tawheed (muwahhid). And then he must follow that with actions upon his limbs that are in accordance with the two testimonies of faith without which the Shahaadataan (the two testimonies) are not complete – and from those actions is the Daily Prayers (i.e. without the establishment of the prayer the shahaadah is not valid). For this reason the Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said:

And if they obey you in that, then inform them that Allaah has obligated upon them five daily prayers in every day and night.

And I say: The five daily prayers are: Dhuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, ‘Ishaa and Fajr – Allaah has commanded that they be observed, as He, the Most High, said:

حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ

Maintain with care the [obligatory] prayers and [in particular] the middle prayer and stand before Allah, devoutly obedient.

 [al-Baqarah: 238]

The indication to the middle prayer here is the middle of the five, which is the ‘Asr prayer – before it is Fajr and Dhuhr in the day, and after it Maghrib and ‘Ishaa in the night. And the command for the observance of these five prayers is to adhere to everything that they necessitate from the conditions of the prayer, the pillars and obligations.

Then the Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said:

“So if they obey you in that, then instruct them that Allaah has obligated upon them Charity, to be taken from their wealthy and given to their poor.”

This is the right of Allaah regarding the wealth, just as the prayer is the right of Allaah upon the body. He informed them that this charity is to be taken from their wealthy ones and given to their poor ones, and the benefit of that returns back to themselves, i.e. to their brothers who live amongst them. This is a right that Allaah has made upon the wealth of the wealthy ones, so by way of it the poor are given comfort and solace – and of benefits that it has within it because of the fact that it is a reason of acquiring the pleasure of Allaah. Secondly: A repelling of evil from those poor people so that they do not accuse the wealthy of hoarding and accumulating wealth; and it is a cause for the blessings of Allaah for them due to this wealth which remains, just as Allaah, the Most High, said:

وَمَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَهُوَ يُخْلِفُهُ ۖ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الرَّازِقِينَ

But whatever thing you spend [in His cause] – He will compensate it; and He is the best of providers.

Then the Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said: “So if they obey you regarding that, then beware of taking the best of their wealth.” Meaning do not take it for Zakaat and thereby you oppress them by taking the best which is more than what is obligatory upon them. So it is not permitted for the collector to take the best of the wealth. And it not permitted for the giver to give or discharge the lowliest of his possessions. Rather upon both of them is to give or take that which is in-between the two – i.e. between the best and the lowliest – except in the condition wherein the giver of Zakaat gives the best he has of possessions as a voluntary act of worship. So from this it is understood that when he (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) commanded them to give the Zakaat he clarified for them that which it is obligatory to take from the possessions so that they are not exposed to the supplication of the oppressed due to his (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) saying:

“And fear the supplication of the oppressed, for indeed there is not between it and Allaah a screen.”

Chapter to be continued, inshaa’Allaah…

Shaikh Ahmad an-Najmee (rahimahullaah) continued:

  • So from this hadeeth [when Mu’aadh was sent to Yemen] we conclude that da’wah begins with Tawheed.

[Benefit from Ibn Uthaimeen: They were sent to Yemen to the People of the Book, meaning the Jews and Christians. This is because the majority of the people of Yemen were Jews and Christians in that time, even if there were idol-worshippers present. So this is why the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) informed of two affairs: 1. That he should have knowledge of the ones he is inviting to Islaam. 2. That he be prepared for them because they are People of the Book – and they have knowledge. As for the Shahaadah, then it requires believing it in the heart, pronouncing it upon the tongue and submitting to it. Ibn Taymiyyah stated regarding the one who believes it with the heart but does not utter it upon the tongue, then such a person is not a Muslim by consensus until he utters the Sahaadah upon his tongue. So the mere intention is not sufficient. For this reason Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said to his uncle: “Qul (say): Laa ilaaha illallaah.” And he did not say to him: Believe there is none worthy of worship except Allaah. See Qawlul-Mufeed, p. 86.]

  • From this hadeeth we conclude that daw’ah is given in stages wherein the caller begins with the most important affair, then moves on to the next most important affair.
  • This hadeeth shows that the Religion includes and encompasses the rights of the body and of wealth.
  • That it is not permitted for the collector of Zakaat to take the best of the possessions of the people.
  • That the Zakaat that is gathered from the people is also distributed amongst the poor of those people.
  • That the wealth of the people is sacrasanct and thus it is not permitted to take it except with due right.
  • From the hadeeth it is understood that taking the best of the possessions of the people in Zakaat is unjust.
  • That the supplication of the oppressed is answered.

It is also understood from this hadeeth that Socialism or Communist Marxism (Ishtiraakiyah) is forbidden due to the fact that the wealth of the people is forbidden for others to take.

[Socialist, Communism and Marxism are economic theories or systems in which the means of production, distribution, and exchange are owned by the community or society collectively, usually through the state. In such a system the earned, inherited wealth or possession of the people are subject to confiscation and redistribution. Translator.]

This forbiddance is proven by the saying of Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) during the Khutbah at the Farewell Hajj:

“Do you know what day this is?”

The people responded: “Allaah and His Messenger know best.” The narrator said: “We started thinking that he would name it with other than its present name.” Then he (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said:

“Is it not the Day of Nahr? (i.e. the day when the animals are slaughtered, on Eid.)”

The people said: “Of course O Messenger of Allaah!”

He said:

“Which land is this? Is it not the land of al-Haraam? (i.e. The Sacred Land of Mecca)”

The people said: “Of course O Messenger of Allaah!”

So he (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said:

“Indeed your blood, your wealth [possessions], and your honour are sacred to one another and forbidden to violate, just like the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this Land of yours. Have I not conveyed [the message to you]?”

They said: “Yes.”

Then he (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said:

“O Allaah bear witness!

Let the one who is present convey it to the one who is absent, for perhaps one may convey to someone who is more comprehending than himself.”

[Bukhaaree in the Book of Hajj, Chapter: Khutbah on the Days of Minaa. Also Imaam Muslim collected it in his “Saheeh”.]

Then the author [Shaikhul-Islaam Muhammad b. Abdul-Wahhaab, rahimahullaah] said:

Bukhaaree and Muslim also report from Sahl b. Sa’d (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) that Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said on the day of the battle of Khaibar:

“Indeed I will give the standard of battle tomorrow to a man who loves Allaah and His Messenger and whom Allaah and His Messenger love. And Allaah will grant victory at his hands.”

So the people spent the night discussing and debating who would receive the standard. So when the following morning arrived, they went to Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) each one hoping that he would receive it. The Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) said:

“Where is ‘Alee b. Abee Taalib?”

It was said: “He has an ailment in his eyes.” So the Messenger sent for him, and he was brought. Then Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) spat in his eyes and supplicated for him. He was cured as if he had not had any pain previous to that. Then Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) gave him the standard, and said:

“Go forth steadily with ease until you reach their settlement. Then call them to Islaam, and inform them of their obligations with respect to the rights of Allaah, the Most High, for by Allaah, that one man is guided by way of you is better for you than red camels.”

[Benefits]

Firstly: The biography of the narrator: He is Sahl b. Sa’d b. Maalik al-Khazrajee al-Ansaaree – the well known Companion. His father was also a Companion. Sahl (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) mentioned that when Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) died, he was fifteen years old. He is the last of those who died in Madeenah from the Companions in the year 88AH, and it is said it was in the year 91AH, and he was over one hundred years old.

Secondly: From the saying of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam): “Indeed I will give the standard of battle tomorrow to a man who loves Allaah and His Messenger – and whom Allaah and His Messenger love..”, we see the undertaking or embarking of the Sahaabah in the seeking of the love of Allaah and His Messenger, and their taking of the means that would necessitate the love of Allaah and His Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam).

[A standard is called Raayah in Arabic because it is yuraa (i.e. seen). It is carried by the leader of an army into battle as a sign of his station. See Ibn Uthaimeen, Qawlul-Mufeed, p. 88.]

Thirdly: The ardent desire for that which necessitates Allaah’s love and the love of His Messenger for the servant is an evidence proving the strength of Imaan for the one who possesses that ardent desire.

Fourthly: In this hadeeth there are the special characteristics of the Sahaabah; their desire for the love of Allaah and His Messenger; and the quality of ‘Alee b. Abee Taalib (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) since he was the one intended.

Fifthly: The saying of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam):  “And Allaah will grant victory at his hands.” – This signifies a special trait of ‘Alee b. Abee Taalib (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) and his excellence due to the fact that Allaah enabled the conquest of Khaibar at his hands, whilst before this they were experience something of difficulty in conquering it.

Sixthly: The saying of the narrator: “So the people spent the night discussing and debating,” meaning they debated and spoke concerning who they anticipated would be the recipient of the standard of battle.

Seventhly: From this narration we see the mutual competing of the Sahaabah to do good and their ardent desire for it due to the saying of the narrator, “each one hoping that he would receive it.” This was the case so much so that it even affected ‘Umar b. al-Khattaab (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) such that he said: “I have never wished for leadership except upon that day.” [Muslim in his Saheeh, Book: The Virtues of the Sahaabah, Chapter: The Virtue of Alee b. Abee Taalib (radiyallaahu ‘anhu)]

Eighthly: The narrator stated: “It was said: “He (‘Alee) has an ailment in his eyes.” So the Messenger sent for him, and he was brought. Then Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) spat in his eyes and supplicated for him. He was cured as if he had not had any pain.”  So this a miracle of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) wherein ‘Alee b. Abee Taalib (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) was cured from conjunctivitis (or opthalmia) straight away even though it is known that which conjunctivitis has within it of pus and infected wet, or moist matter. Everything in the ability of Allaah is easy!

Ninthly: The saying of the narrator: “Then Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) gave him the standard.” So this shows the distinctive quality of ‘Alee b. Abee Taalib (radiyallaahu ‘anhu).

Tenthly: The saying of the Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam): “Go forth steadily with ease until you reach their settlement. Then call them to Islaam, and inform them of their obligations with respect to the rights of Allaah, the Most High.” This shows the station of inviting to Islaam – and that the fighting and the performance of Jihaad of the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) was for the purpose of spreading Islaam to every corner of earth. (i.e. That he did not fight except to free people from the enslavement of the creation so they may devote themselves in servitude to the Creator of the worlds).

[Ibn Uthaimeen (rahimahullaah): Meaning call them to Islaam in the same manner and order mentioned in the hadeeth of the sending of Mu’aadh b. Jabal to Yemen. See Qawlul-Mufeed.]

Eleventhly: Shaikh an-Najmee continues: “This hadeeth is also a rebuttal upon those who claim that Jihaad was only legislated to defend against attack. Rather Jihaad was legislated for the spread of Islaam to all corners of the earth in order to rescue mankind from the worship of the creation to the worship of the Lord of creation.”

Twelfthly: As for the saying of the Prophet: “For by Allaah, that one man is guided by way of you is better for you than red camels.” Then the red camel is more excellent than other camels, and was the most precious of possessions to the Arabs.

[Note here that the Prophet (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) did not say: “That you guide,” because Allaah is the one who guides. So the intent of guidance (hidaayah) here is the hidaayah of tawfeeq (granting success) and directing. Ibn Uthaimeen, Qawlul-Mufeed, p.90]

Thirteen: And from this same sentence we see the reward of inviting to Allaah, the Most High, and that one person embracing Islaam is better than the most precious of possessions and more beautiful than it.

End of chapter.

 

Bookmark the permalink.

Comments are closed